HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF ADAMAWA STATE
Adamawa State, known in Nigeria as The Land of Beauty, is located in northeastern Nigeria, with its administrative capital in Yola. It was created in 1991 from the defunct Gongola State and has since been one of the thirty-six (36) States which presently constitute the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Adamawa is unarguably one of the largest Nigerian states in term of landmass, occupying about 36,917 square kilometres. It shares boundaries with of Borno, Gombe and Taraba states all in the north east zone. However, the state also shares boundary with Cameroon Republic in the eastern part. The name "Adamawa" came from the founder of the kingdom, Modibbo Adama, a regional leader of the Fulani Jihad organized by Usumaanu dan Fodio of Sokoto in 1804.The major occupations of the people are farming, fishing, and livestock rearing as well as commercial activities. Like many other states in Nigeria, little done to exploit the many potentially viable yet hidden and untapped solid mineral resources of the state.
THE PHYSICAL SETTING
Adamawa state lies between longitudes 11° 51/20E of the Greenwich Meridian and latitude 10° 143/4 N of the Equator. The total land area covered by the state is approximately 39,742.13 sq km. It is bounded to the North by Borno State, to the west by Gombe State, to the south by Taraba State and to the east by the Republic of Cameroon. Adamawa State has some of the longest mountain ranges and breath -taking landscape sceneries in the country with areas as low as about 129 metres and as high as 2042 metres above sea level. The land rises from the low-lying Gongola and Benue valleys to the rugged hills to the north, north-east defining the Mandara, Alantika and Shebshi Mountain ranges and the central portion, which is dotted with isolated uplifts such as the Lamurde Longuda, Song -Bagale and Yardang hills, etc. The climatic type is that of the Tropical Continental North characterized by the Sudan Savannah Zones and the Tropical Hinterland by the Northern and Southern Guinea Zones. There are two distinct seasons, the wet season, which starts from April to October and the dry season from November to April. The mean annual rainfall for the Savannah zones in the North is between 750- 850mm and 14001600mm for the Guinea zones in the South. The wettest months are July - August while the driest periods, are March -May. The mean annual temperature is 27° -28°c in the Savannah and 18 -27°c for the Guinea Zones. The aridity index for the Savannah is about 2 and 1-1.6 for the Guinea zone. Temperatures of up 43°c have been recorded during March -May. There are two major vegetation zones and correspond with the climatic types, - the Sudan and sub-Sudan vegetation zone in the North typified by short grasses, trees, shrubs, etc. and the Guinea zones to the south defined by thick vegetation cover, tall grasses and trees.
THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT
The 1991 population figure for the State was 2,124,049 but the current figure is about 3.6million. There are more than 60 ethnic groups with different languages in the State. Prominent among them include Marghi, Higgi, kilba, Bura, Hausa, Fulani, Bwatiye, Chamba, Longuda, Yungur, Kanakuru, Gude, Fali, Lala among others. Agriculture is the major occupation of the people and crops grown include maize, groundnuts, rice, guinea corn, yams, cassava and vegetables. The main secondary activities include irrigation agriculture, transportation, medium and small-scale industrial set-ups, education, fishing, cattle rearing and the commercially based petty trading. The State has several educational institutions - secondary schools, technical colleges, Colleges of Education, State and Federal Universities as well as one American owned private university. There are over 10 different commercial institutions including the Central Bank of Nigeria state branch and the Nigerian Stock Exchange which assist financially for industrial and commercial activities. However, the state also has four media houses - the ABC, ATV, FRCN, NTA and most recently, Gotel LTD. There is an International Airport and a petroleum depot at Yola, the capital. More than 40 different hotels are also found in Yola some of which are of International standard that offer first class services.
Adamawa State lies within a middle belt of the West African continent whose divergent rock types have been affected by orogenesis, ie episodes of deformation of varying intensities resulting in igneous activity, folding, metamorphism, melting, uplift and wide-spread fracturing of the rocks during the geologic period. There are three major geological zones corresponding to three structural types which in turn correspond to three associated rock types namely, the Basement complex rocks, the oldest known rock-types and are areas of uplift which consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks other than volcanic; sedimentary rocks, corresponding to areas of sedimentation, i.e the Benue trough Iyfng wholly within the Basement complex rocks; and volcanic rocks which are isolated volcanic areas along the Benue trough and the Cameroun Volcanic line to the east and north- eastern parts of the State. The Quaternary to Recent deposits from the youngest lithostratigraphical units in the State and are confined to river valleys and flood plains.
Despite the security challenges facing certain parts of northern Nigeria, Adamawa State remains the safest and most secure place for business investments. The state has well stationed army and police barracks designed to forestall any possible criminal act throughout its territory. There is an effective collaboration between the Department of State Security Services (DSS), security agencies as well as the local community to foil any possible threat to prevailing tranquility in the state. Foreign expatriates particularly those involved in constructions and consultancy services are invariably seen moving about doing their business without slightest threat. The location of American University of Nigeria (AUN) in the state capital is a clear testimony to prevailing peace and security in Adamawa State.
Minerals are naturally occurring homogenous substances found several miles deep below the earth crust. They are useful economically only if sufficiently concentrated in the environment in which they are found and could provide a great source of energy for man use and also improve standard of living. Clearly, it would be fruitless to deny that Adamawa State like other regions of Nigeria is endowed with abundant solid mineral resources for both domestic and industrial uses. The State is in fact blessed with abundant mineral resources, although not much has been done yet towards effective exploration and exploitation of such resources except for the activities of small scale illegal miners. In general, the State's mineral resources could he classified into three main categories on the basis of their applications and uses: metallic minerals, non-metallic minerals and industrial and precious stones. The focus of Red Mining Company is largely on industrial and precious stones found in huge quantities in Adamawa State based on proved results.
METALLIC MINERAL DEPOSITS
These consist of abundant metals related solid minerals including iron ore, lead-zinc, cassiterite (tinstone), manganese, tantalum-niobium (columbite) tantalite, magnetite, wolframite, and others wide range of raw metals hugely untapped.
NON - METALLIC DEPOSITS
Non - metallic minerals are also categorized based on their industrial applications or uses and
Include the following:
- Building and constructional materials: such as limestone, gypsum, feldspars, quartz, laterites, granites, clays
- Chemicals and fertilizers: Trona, magnesite, gypsum, limestone, kaolin, barites, fluorspar/ fluorite.
- Insulators/ refractories: Magnesite, graphite, mica, silica, clays
- Fuel and energy: fossil fuel (coal); nuclear fuel (uranium). Precious and semi - precious stones (Gemstones), these are minerals that are cut and polished for settling jewellery and ornaments. They could be metals or non -metals.
Those whose occurrences have been confirmed in the State includes Beryl, Garnet, Aquamarine, Onyx, Sapphire, Ruby, Amethyst, Agate, Silica, Quartz, Emerald, Topaz, Spinel, Tourmaline, Platinum (palladium), Zircosand, Zircon, and those yet undiscovered.
THE STATE’S INVESTMENT ENVIRONMENT
In a drive to foster rapid industrialization of Adamawa State, the Government has been fully committed to providing enabling environment for both local and international prospective investors to participate actively in the exploration and exploitation of the abundant mineral resources especially those whose occurrences have been confirmed or have preliminarily been investigated and thus regarded as "strategic minerals" because of their critical importance to political, social and economic development of the state. In furtherance to that, the State government has set up a committee on solid minerals monitoring to control the operations of small scale miners and ensure compliance with the best practices globally. A provision is made for incorporated mining companies to operate in collaboration with the local government areas and genuine investors. The objective is to exploit the mineral resources and establish mineral-based potential industries which will ultimately meet the needs of the State citizenry. Some of these industries targeted for establishment in the state include metallurgical, cement, ceramics, electronics, pharmaceuticals, chalk manufacturing, printing, fertilizer, the agro-based; mini-computer industries, electro-plating, dyeing, paper, and glassworks; detergent, soap and caustic soda plants, foundary works, refractory bricks, animal feeds, cosmetics, polish, and pencil industrial set-ups, optical, glassworks; ornamental and jewellery works, quarry plants, gypsum and kaolin beneficiation plants, among others. It is in view of the government’s efforts to encourage mining associated industries in the State, the following incentives packages has been prepared for prospective and potential investors. These include, but not limited to:
- Free access to available information and data bank.
- Provision of basic infrastructure in designated industrial layouts;
- Equity participation as desired by the investor especially with full cooperation of Local Government Areas
- Provision of access roads to the prospective areas and environmental security to the investors.
- Provision of adequate fiscal, legal and technical supports to the investor to derive greater returns from mineral-based industries.
Adamawa State is undeniably endowed with some of the most valuable solid minerals, which, when aptly exploited, will generate greater wealth and accelerated economic growth and development. With the benefit of insight coupled with the provision of incentives for prospective, the state has every reason to pride itself as milestone for not only local but also foreign direct investments in mining and mineral processing industrial set up. The pertinent strong political will exhibited by the government and cooperation of local communities yearning for employment opportunities attest to this fact. Government is fully committed towards the rapid industrialization of the State through the stimulation of private sector participation where every citizen will have easy access to employment, education, health, and other basic necessities of life. Therefore, Red Mining Company and its energetic directors are confident that you will not regret investing in Adamawa State mining sector.Source